Dependable transportation can include automobile ownership, proximity to affordable and reliable public transit, or physical ability to walk or bike from place to place. The challenge of dependable transportation has been well studied in low-income and elderly populations - populations similar to female offenders. Femeale offenders commonly experience financial hardship as well as unemployment, unsafe housing, and significant health concerns. However, unlike these populations, female offenders have disadvantages unique to their criminal justice system involvement. Due to pasts demarcated by trauma, many face depression and anxiety symptoms, anger/hostility, adult victimization, parental stress, and relationship dysfunction. Some also face psychosis symptoms. These conditions likely translate into greater need for transportation to meet day-to-day needs and complete supervision succcessfully.
Northcutt Bohmert, Miriam (2016). “Transportation Strategies of Female Offenders.” Federal Probation 80(3):45-48.